The Bern3D Earth System Model of Intermediate Complexity is designed to perform transient simulations on glacial-to-interglacial timescales and large ensemble simulations of future climate projections.
The model contains a 3D ocean component (Edwards et al., 2005; Müller et al., 2006),
a 2D energy and moisture balance atmosphere model (Ritz et al., 2011a),
a marine carbon cycle module (Müller et al., 2008; Tschumi et al., 2008; Parekh et al., 2008),
an optional marine ecosystem module (Gangstø et al., 2011)
and a marine sediment diagenesis module for long timescale carbon cycle simulations (Tschumi et al., 2011; Menviel et al., 2012; Roth et al., 2014).
It can be coupled to the LPX dynamical land vegetation model (Stocker et al., 2013; Steinacher et al., 2013).
Next to the tracers calculated by the carbon cycle module (dissolved inorganic and organic carbon including their isotopes DIC, DIC-13, DIC-14, DOC, DOC-13, DOC-14, alkalinity, oxygen, phosphate, silicate, and iron),
the model includes a number of physical tracers. These are the radiocarbon-to-carbon ratio R-14, protactinium and thorium (Siddall et al., 2007),
neodymium isotopes Nd-143 and Nd-144 (Rempfer et al., 2011),
chlorofluorocarbons CFC-11 and CFC-12 (Müller et al., 2006),
and noble gases argon, krypton, xenon, as well as the radioactive argon isotope Ar-39, and molecular N-2 (Ritz et al., 2011b).
Copyright by S. Ritz
Ritz, S. P., T. F. Stocker, F. Joos, "A coupled dynamical ocean–energy balance atmosphere model for paleoclimate studies", Journal of Climate, 24/2, 349--75, 2011