The Bern3D Earth System Model
The Bern3D Earth System Model of Intermediate Complexity is designed to perform transient simulations on glacial-to-interglacial timescales and large ensemble simulations of future climate projections.
The model contains a 3D ocean component (Edwards et al., 2005; Müller et al., 2006),
a 2D energy and moisture balance atmosphere model (Ritz et al., 2011a),
a marine carbon cycle module (Müller et al., 2008; Tschumi et al., 2008; Parekh et al., 2008),
an optional marine ecosystem module (Gangstø et al., 2011)
and a marine sediment diagenesis module for long timescale carbon cycle simulations (Tschumi et al., 2011; Menviel et al., 2012; Roth et al., 2014).
It can be coupled to the LPX dynamical land vegetation model (Stocker et al., 2013; Steinacher et al., 2013).
Next to the tracers calculated by the carbon cycle module (dissolved inorganic and organic carbon including their isotopes DIC, DIC-13, DIC-14, DOC, DOC-13, DOC-14, alkalinity, oxygen, phosphate, silicate, and iron),
the model includes a number of physical tracers. These are the radiocarbon-to-carbon ratio R-14, protactinium and thorium (Siddall et al., 2007),
neodymium isotopes Nd-143 and Nd-144 (Rempfer et al., 2011),
chlorofluorocarbons CFC-11 and CFC-12 (Müller et al., 2006),
and noble gases argon, krypton, xenon, as well as the radioactive argon isotope Ar-39, and molecular N-2 (Ritz et al., 2011b).
Transient Simulation of the Past 450,000 Years
Ritz, S. P., T. F. Stocker, F. Joos, "A coupled dynamical ocean–energy balance atmosphere model for paleoclimate studies", Journal of Climate, 24/2, 349--75, 2011