We have used the ECHO-G to investigate natural variability of atmospheric modes of variability as well as extratropical cyclones (Raible and Blender 2004; Raible et al. 2005). Recently we were involved in the development of the coupled atmosphere ocean chemistry–climate model (SOCOL-MPIOM) which is based on the physical component MA-ECHAM5 and the chemistry module MEZON. The focus of this model is set to the role of atmospheric chemistry during the last 400 yr and the next 100 yr (e.g., Muthers et al. 2015; Anet et al. 2013).